Versed ( Midazoliam )
Adults and Pediatrics: Intravenous VERSED has been associated with respiratory depression and respiratory arrest, especially when used for sedation in noncritical care settings. In some cases, where this was not recognized promptly and treated effectively, death or hypoxic encephalopathy has resulted. Intravenous VERSED should be used only in hospital or ambulatory care settings, including physicians and dental offices, that provide for continuous monitoring of respiratory and cardiac function, ie, pulse oximetry. Immediate availability of resuscitative drugs and age- and size-appropriate equipment for bag/valve/mask ventilation and intubation, and personnel trained in their use and skilled in airway management should be assured (see WARNINGS). For deeply sedated pediatric patients, a dedicated individual, other than the practitioner performing the procedure, should monitor the patient throughout the procedure.
The initial intravenous dose for sedation in adult patients may be as little as 1 mg, but should not exceed 2.5 mg in a normal healthy adult. Lower doses are necessary for older (over 60 years) or debilitated patients and in patients receiving concomitant narcotics or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants. The initial dose and all subsequent doses should always be titrated slowly; administer over at least 2 minutes and allow an additional 2 or more minutes to fully evaluate the sedative effect. The use of the 1 mg/mL formulation or dilution of the 1 mg/mL or 5 mg/mL formulation is recommended to facilitate slower injection. Doses of sedative medications in pediatric patients must be calculated on a mg/kg basis, and initial doses and all subsequent doses should always be titrated slowly. The initial pediatric dose of VERSED for sedation/anxiolysis/amnesia is age, procedure, and route dependent (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for complete dosing information).
Neonates: VERSED should not be administered by rapid injection in the neonatal population. Severe hypotension and seizures have been reported following rapid IV administration, particularly with concomitant use of fentanyl (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for complete information).
DESCRIPTION: VERSED is a water-soluble benzodiazepine available as a sterile, nonpyrogenic parenteral dosage form for intravenous or intramuscular injection. Each mL contains midazolam hydrochloride equivalent to 1 mg or 5 mg midazolam compounded with 0.8% sodium chloride and 0.01% edetate disodium, with 1% benzyl alcohol as preservative; the pH is adjusted to approximately 3 with hydrochloric acid and, if necessary, sodium hydroxide.
Midazolam is a white to light yellow crystalline compound, insoluble in water. The hydrochloride salt of midazolam, which is formed in situ, is soluble in aqueous solutions. Chemically, midazolam HCl is 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine hydrochloride. Midazolam hydrochloride has the empirical formula C18H13ClFN3HCl, a calculated molecular weight of 362.25 and the following structural formula:
Under the acidic conditions required to solubilize midazolam in the product, midazolam is present as an equilibrium mixture (shown below) of the closed ring form shown above and an open-ring structure formed by the acid-catalyzed ring opening of the 4,5-double bond of the diazepine ring. The amount of open-ring form is dependent upon the pH of the solution. At the specified pH of the product, the solution may contain up to about 25% of the open-ring compound. At the physiologic conditions under which the product is absorbed (pH of 5 to 8) into the systemic circulation, any open-ring form present reverts to the physiologically active, lipophilic, closed-ring form (midazolam) and is absorbed as such.
Interacting Drug Adult Doses Studies
Clinical Trials: Dose Ranging, Safety and Efficacy Study With VERSED Syrup in Pediatric Patients: The effectiveness of VERSED Syrup as a premedicant to sedate and calm pediatric patients prior to induction of general anesthesia was compared among three different doses in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Patients of ASA physical status I, II or III were stratified to 1 of 3 age groups (6 months to <2 years, 2 to <6 years, and 6 to <16 years), and within each age group randomized to 1 of 3 dosing groups (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg up to a maximum dose of 20 mg). Greater than 90% of treated patients achieved satisfactory sedation and anxiolysis at at least one timepoint within 30 minutes posttreatment. Similarly high proportions of patients exhibited satisfactory ease of separation from parent or guardian and were cooperative at the time of mask induction with nitrous oxide and halothane administration. Onset time of satisfactory sedation or anxiolysis occurred within 10 minutes after treatment for >70% of patients who started with an unsatisfactory baseline rating. Whereas pairwise comparisons (0.25 mg/kg versus 0.5 mg/kg groups, and 0.5 mg/kg versus 1.0 mg/kg groups) on satisfactory sedation did not yield significant p-values (p=0.08 in both cases), comparative analysis of the clinical response between the high and low doses demonstrated that a higher proportion of patients in the 1.0 mg/kg dose group exhibited satisfactory sedation and anxiolysis as compared to the 0.25 mg/kg group (p<0.05).
INDICATIONS AND USAGE: VERSED Syrup is indicated for use in pediatric patients for sedation, anxiolysis and amnesia prior to diagnostic, therapeutic or endoscopic procedures or before induction of anesthesia.
VERSED Syrup is intended for use in monitored settings only and not for chronic or home use (see WARNINGS). VERSED SYRUP MUST BE USED AS SPECIFIED IN THE LABEL.
Midazolam is associated with a high incidence of partial or complete impairment of recall for the next several hours (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
CONTRAINDICATIONS: VERSED is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to the drug or allergies to cherries or formulation excipients. Benzodiazepines are contraindicated in patients with acute narrow-angle glaucoma. Benzodiazepines may be used in patients with open-angle glaucoma only if they are receiving appropriate therapy. Measurements of intraocular pressure in patients without eye disease show a moderate lowering following induction of general anesthesia with injectable VERSED; patients with glaucoma have not been studied.
WARNINGS: Serious respiratory adverse events have occurred after administration of oral VERSED, most often when VERSED was used in combination with other central nervous system depressants. These adverse events have included respiratory depression, airway obstruction, oxygen desaturation, apnea, and rarely, respiratory and/or cardiac arrest (see box WARNING). When oral midazolam is administered as the sole agent at recommended doses respiratory depression, airway obstruction, oxygen desaturation, and apnea occur infrequently (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Prior to the administration of VERSED in any dose, the immediate availability of oxygen, resuscitative drugs, age- and size-appropriate equipment for bag/valve/mask ventilation and intubation, and skilled personnel for the maintenance of a patent airway and support of ventilation should be ensured. VERSED Syrup must never be used without individualization of dosage, particularly when used with other medications capable of producing central nervous system depression.
VERSED Syrup should be used only in hospital or ambulatory care settings, including physicians and dentists offices, that are equipped to provide continuous monitoring of respiratory and cardiac function. VERSED Syrup must only be administered to patients if they will be monitored by direct visual observation by a health care professional. If VERSED Syrup will be administered in combination with other anesthetic drugs or drugs which depress the central nervous system, patients must be monitored by persons specifically trained in the use of these drugs and, in particular, in the management of respiratory effects of these drugs, including respiratory and cardiac resuscitation of patients in the age group being treated.
For deeply sedated patients, a dedicated individual whose sole responsibility is to observe the patient, other than the practitioner performing the procedure, should monitor the patient throughout the procedure.
Patients should be continuously monitored for early signs of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, or apnea with means for detection readily available (eg, pulse oximetry). Hypoventilation, airway obstruction, and apnea can lead to hypoxia and/or cardiac arrest unless effective countermeasures are taken immediately. The immediate availability of specific reversal agents (flumazenil) is highly recommended. Vital signs should continue to be monitored during the recovery period. Because VERSED can depress respiration (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY), especially when used concomitantly with opioid agonists and other sedatives (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), it should be used for sedation/anxiolysis/amnesia only in the presence of personnel skilled in early detection of hypoventilation, maintaining a patent airway, and supporting ventilation.
Episodes of oxygen desaturation, respiratory depression, apnea, and airway obstruction have been occasionally reported following premedication (sedation prior to induction of anesthesia) with oral midazolam; such events are markedly increased when oral midazolam is combined with other central nervous system depressing agents and in patients with abnormal airway anatomy, patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease, or patients with sepsis or severe pulmonary disease.
Reactions such as agitation, involuntary movements (including tonic/clonic movements and muscle tremor), hyperactivity and combativeness have been reported in both adult and pediatric patients. Consideration should be given to the possibility of paradoxical reaction. Should such reactions occur, the response to each dose of VERSED and all other drugs, including local anesthetics, should be evaluated before proceeding. Reversal of such responses with flumazenil has been reported in pediatric and adult patients.
Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol or other central nervous system depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect. Narcotic premedication also depresses the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide stimulation.
Coadministration of oral midazolam in patients who are taking ketoconazole and itraconazole has been shown to result in large increases in Cmax and AUC of midazolam due to a decrease in plasma clearance of midazolam (see Pharmacokinetics: Drug-Drug Interactions and PRECAUTIONS). Due to the potential for intense and prolonged sedation and respiratory depression, VERSED Syrup should only be coadministered with these medications if absolutely necessary and with appropriate equipment and personnel available to respond to respiratory insufficiency.
DISPOSAL OF VERSED SYRUP
The disposal of Schedule IV controlled substances must be consistent with State and Federal Regulations.
HOW SUPPLIED: VERSED Syrup is supplied as a clear, red to purplish-red, cherry-flavored syrup containing midazolam hydrochloride equivalent to 2 mg of midazolam/mL; each amber glass bottle of 118 mL of syrup is supplied with 1 press-in bottle adapter, 4 single-use, graduated, oral dispensers and 4 tip caps (NDC 0004-0168-51).
Storage: Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]