Social Psychology: This is the area of psychology that looks at the role of social forces in affecting behavior, particularly interactions between two or more individuals. Typically, the focus is on conformity, aggression, attitude development and change, intimate relationships, prejudice, and group behavior.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology: In this realm of psychological study, psychologists study organizational structures and procedures, dynamics affecting staff morale and productivity, personnel management, job satisfaction, and employee theft and sabotage, as well as other factors that influence personnel selection and assignment in business and industry.
Personality: This dimension of psychological study is aimed at describing and understanding individuals' consistency in behavior, which is expressed as their personality. Personality psychologists are also concerned with factors that shape personality and with assessment of personality features.
Developmental Psychology: This branch of psychology focuses on the study of human development across the life-span. Specific levels or stages across the life-span are generally divided into child, adolescent, adult, and senior developmental periods. These relatively discrete developmental categories are often studied as a means of better understanding the effects of biological, cognitive, and social forces upon the genetic structure of a given individual across the period of his or her life.
Cognitive Psychology: Psychologists who investigate and apply principles derived from research about how individuals organize their world mentally, are engaged in the study of cognitive psychology. These scientists strive to develop a broader knowledge base of the higher mental functions, such as memory, language, creativity, information-processing, decision-making, and problem-solving.
Clinical Psychology: Psychologists practicing in the field of clinical psychology are typically involved in the assessment, diagnosis, and provision of treatment of individuals with diagnosable psychological disorders. Clinical psychologists typically provide these services within inpatient or outpatients settings, or both. They may utilize various therapeutic modalities, such as individual or group therapies in treating individuals diagnosed with emotional, behavioral, or cognitive disorders.
Counseling Psychology: Although a distinction is made between counseling and clinical psychology, there are many interconnections and similarities between these two branches of psychology. Counseling psychologists draw upon many of the same approaches utilized by clinical psychologists, although, their clientele are often somewhat different from those of a clinical psychologist. Counseling psychologists work primarily in outpatient settings, where they develop strategies helpful to people coping with moderate to severe life circumstances. Counseling psychologists often provide services to married couples and families seeking to improve relationships, as well as individuals in need of career guidance.
Academic Psychologists: These psychologists are typically located in colleges, universities, and other training centers, where they serve as instructors and professors within counseling or psychology departments. In addition to teaching courses in general, abnormal, personality, physiological, developmental, and other areas of psychology, they are typically endeavoring to conduct their own research and provide guidance to their students.
Psychometrics: Psychometricians are involved in devising and applying effective measurements of personality, intelligence, achievement, cognitive functioning, behavior, and other human capacities. Their measurements often take the form of tests used to evaluate such dimensions of individuals and groups, and then statistical analysis is used to determine the significance of their findings.
Human Factors: This branch of psychology is closely tied to engineering. Human factors psychologists utilize careful analysis of perception, response time, procedures, and ergonomics in contributing to the design of safe, accessible, and efficient cockpits in spacecraft and jets, as well as automobile control panels, emergency vehicles, rescue equipment, work spaces, correctional facilities, and other applications.